|Um el-Jimal is a very extensive rural settlement
constructed of black basalt in the lava lands east of Mafraq,
which flow down from Jebel Druze, a mountain 50 km to the northeast.
It's history back into the 2nd century but the Islamic era at
Um el-Jimal began in 640 AD when the Rashidun Caliphs took control
of the area. Much remodeling was done throughout the site so
as to repurpose buildings to suit their own needs. The Praetorium
and House XVIII are examples of buildings repurposed as dwelling
places, while House # 53 and House X were possibly repurposed
into a mosque. Despite all of this, the population decreased
and the site was slowly abandoned with the help of an earthquake
in circa 749 that destroyed many buildings and set much of the
architecture off balance. The site was completely deserted under
the Abbasid Caliphs in the ninth century.